The Living Fossil of Peonies in the World, Qunfang, the Magical Peony Leader of the Han Dynasty

1. Land preparation

Generally, it is better to choose hillsides and plains with a warm climate, good drainage, ventilation and sunshine, and deep, fertile, humus-rich loam or sandy loam. Intensive cultivation is required before planting, deep plowing, 30-60 cm deep, grass roots and stones are removed, and a certain amount of base fertilizer is applied, and 3000-4000 kg of manure or compost is applied per mu, raked flat, and made into a furrow with a width of 130-230 centimeter. If there is too much rain and poor drainage, the width of the furrow can be reduced to about 100 cm, and a drainage ditch of about 30 cm is dug between the furrows.

2. Breeding method

(1) Root propagation

When harvesting, choose a thick, not hollow, and pest-free bud plate and cut it from the root, and cut it into several pieces according to its natural growth shape, each piece has 2 to 4 buds, which are used as seeds. Leave a 2 cm long head under the peony buds to facilitate growth. Generally, 1 mu of peony sprouts can be harvested, and 3 to 4 mu can be planted. It is best to cut and plant peony bud heads. If it cannot be planted in time, it should be stored temporarily. You can choose a cool, dry and ventilated place indoors, spread a layer of moist fine sand on the ground, stack the bud heads upwards, and then cover with wet sand; you can also dig pits outside for storage. Pay attention to drainage to prevent mildew. Peony is planted from August to October, and the buds of peony have sprouted new roots too late, which is easy to damage when planting, which will affect the growth of the next year. They are planted according to the size of the peony bud heads, which is convenient for management. The row spacing is 50 cm, the plant spacing is 30 cm, and the density is 4000-4500 per mu. Use hole planting, put 1-2 bud heads in each hole, and bury it at a depth of 3-6 cm. Around the first ten days of March of the following year, the soil is leveled before the sprouts of peony sprouts germinate.

(2) Seed propagation

The single-petalled peony is firm and firm. The seeds are mature in early and mid-August, and they are picked in time when the pods are slightly cracked, and they are sown as they are picked, or mixed with wet sand and stored until mid-to-late September. Do furrow sowing, the furrow width is 120 cm, the row spacing can be 40 cm, the depth is 6-7 cm, and the soil is covered after sowing. Hole sowing, hole distance 20-30 cm, 4-5 grains per hole, cover with wet soil after sowing, and then cultivate 6-8 cm thick soil on the sowing ditch, keep it firm and water. Before and after Qingming, dig out the covering soil and check the germination of the seeds. If they have germinated, remove the covering soil and cover with fine soil. The seedlings can be unearthed in late April. Plant the seedlings after 2 or 3 years of growth. Due to seed propagation, the growth cycle is long, and the production application is less.

(3) Root cutting propagation

When dividing the roots in autumn, cut the collected peony roots into 5-10 cm long pieces, insert them on the flat ground with a depth of 10-15 cm, and water once. Pay attention to keep the soil moist to facilitate rooting.

3. Field management

Watering and drainage: peony likes drought and fears waterlogging, and generally does not need irrigation. If there is a severe drought, it is advisable to irrigate once in the evening. In the rainy season, the ditch should be cleared in time to pay attention to drainage to prevent root rot.

Weeding and fertilization: In early spring, the soil should be loosened in time to maintain moisture, and weeding and weeding should be carried out 4 to 6 times a year after emergence. The intertillage should be shallow so as not to damage the roots and kill the seedlings. In late October, before the ground freezes, cut off the branches and leaves 7 to 10 cm above the ground, and cultivate about 15 cm of soil in the rhizosphere to facilitate overwintering. At the same time, fertilize the planted peonies from the second year. For the first time, from late March to late April, apply light human excrement and urine; for the second time, in late April, apply 500 kg of human excrement per mu; 3 times from October to November, the main fertilizer is 1500-2000 kg per mu. In late March of the third year, 750 kg of human excrement, 50 kg of decomposed cake fertilizer and 25 kg of calcium phosphate were applied per mu; In the fourth year, topdressing was done twice before harvest. In late March, 1,000 kg of human excrement was applied per mu, plus 10 kg of ammonium sulfate and 25 kg of superphosphate; Every time topdressing, it is suitable to ditch on both sides of the plant.

Picking buds: In order to concentrate nutrients for root growth, the flower buds should be removed in time every spring when buds appear. Picking buds should be carried out on a sunny day without dew.